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Angklung : Sundanese Culture Musical Instruments - West Java

Angklung is a musical instrument played by means of bamboo which vibrated. The sound produced is the effect of the collision bamboo tubes that make up the instrument. These instruments are classified into types idiofon or instrument sound source music that comes from the base ingredients. Angklung is generally known from the area of West Java. Since November 2010, UNESCO named him as one of the world cultural heritage, with the category of Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

The word comes from the angklung supposedly Sundanese (angkleung-angkleungan), which describes the motion of the body of the players Angklung swaying with the rhythm of the sound. However, there are also who believe the word is derived from Klung angklung, an imitation of the sound of the bamboo instrument. While one other theory states, the word "angklung" comes from the Balinese language, which is a number and lung. Figures mean tone, while the mean lung broken, or in other words, angklung meaningful tone incomplete.

Angklung History
According to Dr. Groneman, Angklung has been there in the land of the archipelago, even before the era of Hinduism. According to Jaap Kunst in his book Music in Java, other than in West Java, Angklung can also be found in South Sumatra and Kalimantan. Beyond that, the people of Lampung, East Java and Central Java are also familiar with the instrument.

In the Hindu era, the era of the Kingdom of Sunda, Angklung become an important instrument in various celebrations, especially with regard to the rites of planting, especially rice. In the neighborhood of the Kingdom of Sunda, recorded since the 7th century, Angklung played as a form of worship to Dewi Sri (the goddess of rice / goddess of fertility), that He bestows his blessing on plants and people's lives. Not only as a medium of worship of the gods, in the days of the Kingdom of Sunda, Angklung is also a musical instrument played as morale boosters in the war, including the Bubat War, as told in the Song of Sunda.

Today, an instrument Angklung Angklung gubrag oldest preserved. Angklung is made in the 17th century in Jasinga, Bogor. Other ancient angklung can still track down there in Sri Baduga Museum, London. Meanwhile, the old tradition of Angklung that can be found in communities Baduy (Baduy), precisely in Lebak, Banten. To this day, they are still functioning as the angklung which inherited his ancestors, which accompany the rite planting.

In 1938, Daeng Soetigna, citizens of Bandung, create angklung with diatonic scales. Angklung Daeng Sutigna innovation is different from the angklung in general are based on scales trradisional pelog or salendro. Innovation is then made freely angklung can be played in harmony with Western musical instruments, and even can be presented in the form of an orchestra. Since then, more and reap Angklung popularity, until finally the United Nations, through UNESCO, on 18 November 2012, recognizing it as a world heritage that must be preserved. After Daeng Soetigna, one of his students, Udjo Ngalagena, continuing efforts to popularize Angklung Master findings, with the established "Saung Angklung" in Bandung. To this day, the place came to be known as the "Saung Angklung Udjo" is still a center of creativity with regard to Angklung

Types of Angklung

     angklung Kanekes

Angklung Angklung Kanekes is played by the public Baduy (Baduy), in Banten. As mentioned earlier, Angklung traditions that exist in Baduy community is fairly ancient, and still preserved as exemplified function of their ancestors, which accompany the rite planting (rice). In Kanekes community, which is divided into two groups, ie groups Outer Baduy (Kajeroan) and group Baduy (Kaluaran Affairs), which is entitled to make Angklung just Jero Bedouin citizens, it was not everyone, but only those who become children of Angklung maker. Meanwhile, residents of Outer Baduy not make Angklung, but just bought it from Bedouin citizens Jero. The names of Angklung in Kanekes of the largest are: ovaries, ringkung, Dongdong, gossip, engklok, ovary leutik, torolok, and roel.


   Angklung Dogdog Lojor

Art Dogdog Lojor contained in Kasepuhan Pancer Pangawinan communities, which inhabit about Mountain Mist, which borders the region of Jakarta, Bogor and Lebak. Lojor Dogdog term itself actually taken from the name of one of the instruments in this tradition, namely Dogdog Lojor. However, Angklung also get a portion that is no less important here, especially in the function of tradition, ie, as a companion planting rites. Having people there to Islam, in its development, the arts are also used to accompany circumcision and marriage. In Dogdog Lojor art, there are two instruments Dogdog Lojor and 4 large angklung instruments.

     angklung Badeng

Badeng an Angklung art that uses as its main instrument. There Badeng Art Sanding Village, District Malangbong, Garut. Along with the development of Islam, Art Badeng also used for the purposes of propaganda and entertainment. However, it is believed in the art Badeng Angklung also have the same roots, namely as a companion planting rites. In Badeng arts, played 9 pieces Angklung, namely 2 roel angklung, angklung kecer 1, 4 Angklung Angklung ovary and father, 2 children angklung; 2 pieces dogdog, 2 fruit fly or Gembyung, and 1 manacle.
In addition to the three above Angklung arts tradition, many other areas in West Java which also inherited the tradition of Angklung, call it Angklung Beans (Priangan / Bandung), Angklung Badud (East Priangan / Kudat), and Angklung Bungko (Indramayu).


    angklung Padaeng

Angklung Angklung Padaeng is now widely known, namely Angklung Daeng Soetigna results innovation, which uses diatonic scales. In line with the theory of music, specifically the Angklung Padaeng grouped into two, namely: Angklung Angklung melody and accompaniment. Angklung melody is specifically consists of two tubes with different voice tones one octave. In one unit of angklung, generally there are 31 small and 11 Angklung Angklung melody great melody. Meanwhile, Angklung Angklung accompaniment is used as a companion to play tones harmony. Voice tube consists of 3 to 4, according to the diatonic chord. After Daeng Soetigna innovation, other reforms to the angklung continues to grow. Some of them are: Angklung Sarinande, Arumba, Angklung Toel, and Angklung Sri Murni.

Angklung Playing Techniques

Plays an angklung is basically very simple, ie, one hand holding the frame angklung, and the other hand swing to produce sound. There are three basic techniques wiggle angklung, namely:

     Kurulung (shakes), is the most common technique used, where one hand holding the frame angklung, and the other shaking the angklung for the desired tone, until the tubes one after clashing bamboo and produce sound.
     Trowel (jerky), which is a technique in which the base tube is pulled quickly by the fingers into the palm of the right hand, so angklung will beep once (stacato).
     Tengkep, ie similar techniques as kurulung, but one of the tubes being held not vibrating.
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